Basic ICM Concepts

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Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Thu Mar 15, 2012 11:08 pm

I imagine this has been covered before but I cannot find it through the search capability so I am asking here.

Where can one get a good description of key ICM musical concepts that are often used in describing rag sangeet like:

Andolan
Nyasa
Murki
Chalan
Svaroop
rag Lakshana
Langhan
Uccharana
Shithil
Chhayas
Uttaranga
Prayoga
Abhasa
Mukhda

and other terms and key concepts that can help one understand what musicians are saying when they talk about various raags

e.g. The rishab is rendered deergha in avarohatmaka prayogas
Last edited by Kirya on Tue Mar 27, 2012 6:30 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:15 pm

Some basics from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustani_classical_music

The rhythmic organization is based on rhythmic patterns called tala. The melodic foundations are called ragas. One possible classification of ragas is into "melodic modes" or "parent scales", known as thaats, under which most ragas can be classified based on the notes they use.

Thaats may consist of up to seven scale degrees, or swara. Hindustani musicians name these pitches using a system called Sargam, the equivalent of the Western movable do solfege:

Sa (Shadaj) = Do
Re (Rishab) = Re
Ga (Gandhar) = Mi
Ma (Madhyam) = Fa
Pa (Pancham) = So
Dha (Dhaivat) = La
Ni (Nishad) = Ti
Sa (Shadaj) = Do

Both systems repeat at the octave. The difference between sargam and solfege is that re, ga, ma, dha, and ni can refer to either "Natural" (shuddha) or altered "Flat" (komal) or "Sharp" (tivra) versions of their respective scale degrees. As with movable do solfege, the notes are heard relative to an arbitrary tonic that varies from performance to performance, rather than to fixed frequencies, as on a xylophone. The fine intonational differences between different instances of the same swara are called srutis. The three primary registers of Indian classical music are mandra (lower), madhya (middle) and taar (upper). Since the octave location is not fixed, it is also possible to use provenances in mid-register (such as mandra-madhya or madhya-taar) for certain ragas. A typical rendition of Hindustani raga involves two stages:

Alap: a rhythmically free improvisation on the rules for the raga in order to give life to the raga and flesh out its characteristics. The alap is followed by a long slow-tempo improvisation in vocal music, or by the jod and jhala in instrumental music.

Bandish or Gat: a fixed, melodic composition set in a specific raga, performed with rhythmic accompaniment by a tabla or pakhavaj. There are different ways of systematizing the parts of a composition. For example:
Sthaayi: The initial, rondo phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition.
Antara: The first body phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition.
Sanchaari: The third body phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition, seen more typically in dhrupad bandishes
Aabhog: The fourth and concluding body phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition, seen more typically in Dhrupad bandishes.

There are three variations of bandish, regarding tempo:
Vilambit bandish: A slow and steady melodic composition, usually in largo to adagio speeds.
Madhyalaya bandish: A medium tempo melodic competition, usually set in andante to allegretto speeds.
Drut bandish: A fast tempo melodic composition, usually set to allegretto speed or faster.

Hindustani classical music is primarily vocal-centric, insofar as the musical forms were designed primarily for vocal performance, and many instruments were designed and evaluated as to how well they emulate the human voice.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:22 pm

Some more from: http://www.cosmopolis.ch/english/music/ ... _music.htm

The basics of Indian classical music

India's performing arts - music, dance, drama, and poetry - are based on the concept of Nava Rasa (the nine sentiments). The acknowledged order of these sentiments is as follows: Shringara (romantic and erotic), Hasya (humorous), Karuna (pathetic), Raudra (anger), Veera (heroic), Bhayanaka (fearful), Vibhatsa (disgustful), Adbhuta (amazement), and Shanta (peaceful).

The heart of Indian classical music - of both the Hindustani and the Carnatic system - is the raga: the melodic form upon which the musician improvises and which may take hours to develop. The raga framework is established by tradition and nurtured by the leading musicians of the past and present, composer and sitar player Ravi Shankar being one of them.

Ravi Shankar defines ragas as follows: "Ragas are extremely difficult to explain in a few words. Though Indian music is modal in character, ragas should not be mistaken as modes that one hears in the music of the Middle and Far Eastern countries, nor be understood to be a scale, melody per se, a composition, or a key. A raga is a scientific, precise, subtle and aesthetic melodic form with its own peculiar ascending and descending movement consisting of either a full seven note octave, or a series of six or five notes (or a combination of any of these) in a rising or falling structure called the Arohana and Avarohana. It is the subtle difference in the order of notes, an omission of a dissonant note, an emphasis on a particular note, the slide from one note to another, and the use of microtones together with other subtleties, that demarcate one raga from the other."

Each raga is principally dominated by one of the nine rasas (sentiments) mentioned above, although the performer can express additional emotions in a less prominent way. The closer the notes of a raga translate one idea or emotion, the more resounding the effect of the raga. Ravi Shankar adds that "90 percent of Indian music may be improvised", that "a raga is the projection of the artist's inner spirit, a manifestation of his most profound sentiments and sensibilities brought forth through tones and melodies", and that "The spiritual quality and manner of expression [of a Raga] cannot be learned from any book."

Ravi Shankar refers to the Sanskrit saying Ranjayathi iti Ragah, which establishes, that a raga, in order to color the mind of the listener, should be created "not only through the notes and the embellishments, but also by the presentation of the specific emotion or mood characteristic of each raga." In this way, melodies of Indian classical music allow accomplished musicians to express and experience "every human emotion, every subtle feeling in man and nature".

Ragas are based on 72 melas or parent scales. With all their permutations and combinations, one estimates that there are over 6,000 ragas. In addition to the ascending - descending structure (Arohana - Avarohana), a raga has a specific chalan - or characteristic note pattern. This pattern is defined by its principle important note (vadi), its second most important note (samavadi), its main feature known as jan (life) or mukhda (face), and the cluster of a few notes by which a raga is immediately recognizable.

It takes a student many years of sadhana or dedicated practice and discipline under the guidance of a guru to be able to put the breath of life (prana) into a raga. Among the secrets of a vibrant and incandescent performance a teacher imparts to his pupil is the use of shrutis (microtones; Indian music uses smaller intervals than Western music: 22 microtones within an octave), gamakas (sort of glissandi) and andolan (a sway, but not a vibrato).


Robert Maycock explains that cycles may "begin and end on the first beat - in Western terms, they run over into the first downbeat of the next, so that the rhythm flows seamlessly. They are the springboard for fantastical games of cross-rhythms, playing against the regular pattern, overlapping and ear-tricking. The intricacy, far beyond anything encountered in European music, becomes second nature to trained performers." He adds: "Once the peak of excitement has been reached, there is usually a formal ending or tihai, a threefold repetition of a short series of phrases within which the final phrase is itself repeated three times."


Khyal is a further development of dhurap and dhamar and dates from the 13th century. Its origin is attributed to Amir Kushroo. It was further developed by Sultan Hussain Shirki and brought to its ultimate respectability by Sadarang. It has gained in popularity since the late 19th century.

The traditional recital of Indian classical music begins with the alap section, the stately and serene exploration, the gradual and meditative unfolding of the structure, theme and rasa of a chosen raga. It is considered the highest form in Indian music. This slow, introspective and heartfelt beginning is followed by the jor, which adds rhythm to the music and develops the raga's basic theme in innumerable variations. Neither the alap nor the jor are accompanied by the drums. They evolve into the gat, the fixed composition of the raga. The drums enter the rhythmic structure of the gat and its time cycle, the tala. This section is based on the Khyal form. The gat can be anything between 4 and 16 bars of fixed composition. It becomes the vehicle for the musician to return to after his improvisation. The gat accelerates step-by-step and culminates in the jhala portion, which is playful and exciting. The interplay, the dialogue between between sitar and tabla is called Sawal jabab. At the conclusion of a recital, the musicians often choose to play a thumri or dhun, an air or melody in a semi-classical or folk style. It is much freer than the classical one and completely romantic, sensual and erotic.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:25 pm

PAKAD OR SWARUP

by David Courtney working tools http://chandrakantha.com/articles/india ... pakad.html

The pakad or swarup, is a defining phrase or a characteristic pattern for a rag. This is often a particular way in which a rag moves; for instance the "Pa M'a Ga Ma Ga" is a tell-tale sign for Rag Bihag, or "Ni Re Ga M'a" is a telltale sign for Yaman. Often the pakad is a natural consequence of the notes of arohana / avarohana (ascending and descending structures). However, sometimes the pakad is unique and not implied by the notes of the arohana /avarohana. It is customary to enfold the pakad into the arohana / avarohana to make the ascending and desending structures more descriptive.

Sometimes the pakad involves a particular ornamentation. A good example is the peculiar andolan (slow shake) that is found in Rag Darbari Kannada. This particular andolan slowly oscillates around a komal Ga which is so low that it is almost a shuddha Re.

Not every rag has a clear pakad. For instance some peculiar rags may be defined simply by their modal characteristics. This seems to be a growing trend, especially for new rags which are coming into Hindustani sangeet from other sources.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:30 pm

Pakad http://www.soundofindia.com/showarticle ... 1702358572


By Haresh Bakshi

Pakad has been variously translated as motif, catch phrase, defining phrase or characteristic pattern of a raga.

The PAKAD of a raga is a group of notes, or a group of phrases of notes, which bring out the most characteristic expression of that raga. The word "pakad" means 'the catch', 'the grip'; it 'catches' the atmosphere of the raga; it gives us a grip on how to best represent the raga.

A pakad has the potential to illustrate the grammar and aesthetics of a raga. Thus, it may include the vadi, and/or samvadi of a raga. it also may illustrate the anga (poorvanga, the lower tetrachord, or uttaranga, the upper tetrachord) in which a raga is more extensively elaborated. In fact the anga (tetrachord) which dominates the improvisation, and the time at which a raga is performed, are both determined by the location of the vadi: If the vadi of a raga is situated in the poorvanga (lower tetrachord), (i) that raga is dominated by development in the mandra-madhya saptaka (lower-middle octave); (ii) that raga is performed at any time EXCEPT morning. Conversely, if the vadi of a raga is situated in the uttaranga (upper tetrachord), (i) that raga is dominated by development in the taar-madhya saptaka (upper-middle octave); (ii) that raga is performed in the morning. These are, of course, guiding generalisations. Note that vadi and samvadi are never located in the same anga (tetrachord). Further, the pakad of a raga often illustrates the order in which the notes are taken. It also may demonstrate the emphasis on certain notes.

EXAMPLE:-

Raga Yaman

Pakad: 'N-R-G-M-P, R-G-R, 'N-R-S (three phrases of note-groups) Yaman data:- vadi G, samvadi N, important anuvadi P; it is NOT sung in the morning (so, it is poorvanga-pradhan, and has its vadi in poorvanga); the note Sa is omitted when ascending. It aptly illustrates the important "aesthetic jump" from Pa to Re.
Question:- Are the details about Yaman, given above, illustrated by the pakad? The answer, clearly, is Yes.

There are certain features NOT demonstrated by the pakad. For example, the pakad does not illustrate the fact that Yaman omits the note Pa in ascending: It goes like 'N-R-G-M-D-N etc. Such details can be included in a more comprehensive format like the chalan. Pakad is shorter than chalan (outline). Chalan is more expanded, being designed to illustrate the movement of the raga in all three octaves.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:34 pm

Vivadi swara-s http://www.soundofindia.com/showarticle ... 1437420927


By Haresh Bakshi

A note, that is not one of the notes that comprise a raga, is vivadi. It is also called "varjya" (to be excluded), or, "varjita" (excluded).

For example, the notes S-R-G-P-D comprise the raga Bhupali. So the excluded notes, 'm' and 'N', are vivadi notes.

It is the vivadi notes that give rise to the three 'jati-s' (types) of raga-s, namely 'audava', comprising 5 notes; 'shadava', comprising 6 notes; and 'sampurna', comprising 7 notes.

The concept of vivaditaa (exclusion) is more elaborate than is generally recognized. In this connection, we can distinguish the following types of excluded notes:

1. Those notes which are dissonant with the aesthetics of a raga. For example, Ma in Bhupali.

2. Those notes which are optional to a raga. For example komal Ni Tilak Kamod.

3. Those notes which are instinctively included in a raga, though known to be technically excluded. For example Ni in Bhupali, Ga in Kedar.

4. Those notes which are conventionally included. For example, komal Ni in Bhairava.

5. Those notes which are included for embellishment. For example, notes in Bhairavi, Pahadi, Piloo etc.

6. Those notes which the masters include, rarely, in a raga. For example, komal Ni: Salamat Ali Khan's dhamAr in the raga hameer -- see http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/salamat.ram. Also, Ustad Faiyyaz Khan's application of komal Ni in the raga maru Bihag -- see http://www.sawf.org/audio/marubihag/faiyyazkhan.ram

There will be more, as we go along.

Vivadi notes, thus, contribute substantially to the aesthetics of a raga -- whether by their presence, or by their absence. I am in the process of coining Sanskrit words like suvivaadii/antargata, durvivaadii/dissonant, anuvivaadii/kaamya/aichhika etc., to represent these shades and nuances in the concept of vivaditva (or, vivaditaa)
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:35 pm

Anga http://www.soundofindia.com/showarticle ... =440516759


By Haresh Bakshi

anga (Sanskrit a~Nga) (sometimes called "sthaana", meaning 'location').

In general, the term "anga" means a sub-division, a part of the whole.

In Indian music, it denotes one of the two parts (tetrachords) of the octave.

First, to the saptaka (S, R, G, m, P, D, N), add the taara Sa (S'). This is the octave (S, R, G, m, P, D, N, S'). Now the octave is divided into two parts: (1) Sa to Ma: S, R, G, m; (2) P to S': P, D, N, S'. These constitute the two anga-s. The first part is called poorvanga, the lower tetrachord. The second part is called uttaranga, the upper tetrachord. Each part has four members, and the two parts are similarly constructed.

The predominance of one of the parts, called anga-pradhanata or anga-pradhanya, has great significance in theory and practice of music. If poorvanga is dominant in a raga, that raga will have its vadi (sonant) note in poorvanga (one of the four notes: S, R, G, m). Also, such a raga will be a non-morning raga -- it is performed at a time other than in the morning. On the other hand, if uttaranga is dominant in a raga, that raga will have its vadi (sonant) note in uttaranga (one of the four notes: P, D, N, S'). Also, such a raga will be a morning raga -- it is performed in the morning.

Now, vadi (sonant) and samvadi (consonant) always lie in different anga-s, So,in raga-s with sonant in poorvanga, the samvadi (consonant) will lie in the uttaranga. Conversely, in raga-s with sonant in uttaranga, the samvadi (consonant) will lie in the poorvanga. This means that the morning raga-s, with dominance of uttaranga, will be more elaborated in the uttaranga. On the other hand, the non-morning raga-s, with dominance of poorvanga, will be more elaborated in the poorvanga.

Sometimes, the two parts are divided as:

(1) S to P: S, R, G, m, P; (2) m to S': m, P, D, N, S'.

Also see: saptaka, poorvanga, uttaranga. anga-pradhanata (or, anga-pradhanya), vadi, samvadi.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:46 pm

Chalan (excerpt from http://www.soundofindia.com/showarticle ... 1410496483)

The other important aspect that disqualifies ragas from being taught to beginners is the ‘chalan’ of a raga. The word ‘chalan’ literally means ‘movement’ of the raga and defines how raga progression can occur. In certain ragas with complex chalan, notes need to be sung in a certain order. In other words, there are restrictions on which notes can follow or precede certain other notes. A simple example is raga Bilaskhani Todi with aroha - S r g P d S’ and avaroha – r’ n d M g r S. The shuddha maddhyam is completely skipped in the ascent while the descent cold shoulders the pancham. Other examples of ragas with complex chalan are ragas Bhatiyar and Ramkali that are meant only for fairly advanced students.

Microtones

Furthermore, there are ragas that employ specific microtones that are difficult to reproduce for the untrained voice. A striking example is raga Marwa. Although Marwa has its constituent notes spaced out fairly evenly and has a straightforward ascending and descending order (’N r G m D N S’ / r’ N D m G r S), one of the aspects that makes it a complex raga to sing is the presence of the flatter-than-normal komal rishabh. This microtone is of a frequency situated between the regular komal rishabh and the shadja and lies very close to the shadja. Accurate placement of this shruti is not possible without prolonged and intensive training in classical music. Other examples of ragas that employ swar shrutis that are flatter or sharper than normal are ragas Miyan ki Malhar (employing a sharper-than-normal komal gandhar) and Darbari Kanada (employing a flatter-than-normal komal gandhar).

Last but not the least, ragas that employ peculiar note treatments like oscillation or ‘andolan’ on one or more of its constituent notes also fall outside of the beginner’s spectrum of ragas. ‘Andolan’ begins at an adjacent note and repeatedly lands on the note that is being oscillated upon (called the ‘andolit’ swar). In this process it touches all the intermittent microtones giving a resounding effect. Examples are ragas Bhairav (andolit swar - komal rishabh and komal dhaivat) and Darbari Kanada (andolit swar – komal gandhar).
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 8:51 pm

Miscellaneous Terms http://www.soundofindia.com/showarticle ... =793838584


Naad Sanskrit for sound.

Ahad Naad Asound produced artificially, e.g., by striking, plucking, blowing,etc.

Anaahad Naad The natural sound energy pervading the universe which is not audible to human ear.

Harmony When two or more notes are produced simultaneously and the combination sounds agreeable and pleasant. Indian classical music does not have the concept of harmony. Western classical music does.

Melody A sequence of individual notes (not simultaneous) that sounds agreeable and pleasant. Indian classical music is melodic. Western classical music involves melody as well as harmony.

Samvaadita When two swaras are produced simultaneously and the combination sounds agreeable and pleasant, it's called samvadita(consonance). Different combinations of swaras sound agreeable to varying degrees. The consonance of Sa and Sa (of two different saptaks) is the most agreeable and pleasant (highest concord), with Sa-Pa and Sa-Ma consonances following in descending order of concord.

Tirobhaav The act of an artist constructing and dwelling on phrases or patterns of swaras technically allowed in the raag being performed but not usually performed in that raag. By emphasizing the unusual and rarely heard phrases, the artist is in a way hiding the known and popular character of the raag. Though theoretically permitted, this may result in audience not being able to identify the raag. Only well-accomplished artists, who are established authorities, usually attempt tirobhaav.

Avirbhaav The act of an artist, having done tirobhaav for a while, returning to the known and characteristic phrases or patterns of theraag being performed. Tirobhaav having confused the audience, avirbhaav immediately gives them a sense of familiarity and identification of the raag. While tirobhaav hides the usual character of a raag, avirbhaav brings it out. Tirobhaav not followed by avirbhaavis not generally prescribed.

Nyaas-swar The act of halting or staying on a swar in a composition, before taking the next swar.

Upaj When starting a performance, the artist presents the notes of the raag one by one, (using aakaar or sargam). The act of repeating and emphasizing a swar at this stage is called Upaj.

Barhat When starting a performance, the artist presents the swaras of the raag (using aakaarorsargam). The act of slowly and gradually introducing the swaras one at a time while weaving and establishing characteristic patterns of the raagis called barhat. For instance, when performing raag Yaman, the artist may first dwell on only Madhya Sa and Mandra Ni. Then introduce Mandra Dha, and dwell on Sa, Ni and Dha for a while. And then introduce Madhya Re, and so on.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Fri Mar 16, 2012 9:12 pm

http://raag-hindustani.com/Embellishment.html -- Go to this link to hear the sound samples

Ancient texts list many different embellishment techniques (called alankar or ornamentation), some as many as 68 different kinds. Here are a few words used to describe those techniques, just to give you a feel:

- aaghaata (stricken)
- andolita (swung)
- gumphita (strung together)
- kampita (vibrating)
- kurula (spiraling/curling)
- mudrita (intertwined)
- plavita (flowing)
- sphurita (quivering)
- ulhasita (elated)

But the terms used to describe ornamentation have changed over the years, and today we talk of about 33 embellishment techniques in Hindustani classical music. This section describes a few of those. But first, a word of warning. Students of classical music learn ornamentation techniques by copying what they hear and practicing until perfect, rather than by studying the theory behind them. In fact, you could get stuck trying to execute an ornament if you stop to deliberately think about it. So, once you've learned the basics, you must learn to let go of the theory and follow your instincts instead. It's like dancing or riding a bike.

Meend (glissando)
A meend is essentially like a glissando in the sense that it is a smooth glide from one note to another, including all the intervening pitches, and often specific non-intervening pitches as well. Within the basic style of a meend there are many variations - different ways in which the meend must be applied depending on the what is being sung.

For instance, listen to the difference between the two examples below. They are both the same set of notes sung in legato, but the first one is sung simply, while the second one applies meends typical of Raag Bageshree.

Ordinary: m P D g

Raag Bageshree: m P D g

Here's a clear demonstration of a meend between S and S' (spanning a whole octave) which touches all the intervening pitches in the octave:

Meend from S to S'

But then, a meend between the same two notes can sound quite different depending on what pitches you touch en route (i.e., which raga is being sung). For instance, check out how different the note-combination "S m" sounds in the following two examples:

"S m" as sung in Raag Bahar

"S m" as sung in Raag Kedar

Talking of Raag Kedar, it is characterized by its use of what are called "undulating" meends. What this means is that instead of going straight up or straight down, Raag Kedar almost always combines its notes in a gently swaying back and forth motion.

Simple phrases with undulating meends, Raag Kedar

In practice, a meend can be sung to a vowel sound, to a syllable of lyric, or to the sol-fa syllables of the start and end notes (even though technically other notes are also included). It can also be sung at different speeds. The point of a meend is that even though it only mentions the start and end notes, it is a continuum that includes all the relevant pitches in a smooth transition. Skilled artists are so good at singing meends that they not just include every relevant note, they also know exactly how much to emphasize each of these notes. Because, depending on the raga, some notes are very prominent, while others are barely present.

Kan-Swar (grace notes)
Listen to the difference between the two examples below. They both involve singing the same notes, but the second version sings the bold-highlighted notes with grace notes.

Ascent: S g m D n S'/Descent: S' n D m P D g, m g R s

Raag Bageshree Ascent: S g m D n S'/Descent: S' n D m P D g, m g R S

Let me explain the bold-highlighted notes. The phrase "m P D g" on the way down is very characteristic of Raag Bageshree. P here is sung via D, and D is actually a smooth transition from P to D to m. Note also how R on the way down is actually a combination of R-g-R. In the case of kan-swar (grace notes), the main challenge is learning what kan-swars are applied in which raga, because the wrong kan-swar can change the feel of the raga. This is not just puritanical nitpicking. If your grasp of ragas is not perfect, you might find that you've accidentally slipped into a different raga from the one you were originally singing, and it is quite possibly because you interchanged their kan-swars.

The examples below are two ragas that are very easy for me to slip from one into the other. Notice the difference in the way the note g is sung in these ragas.

Raag Malkauns Ascent: 'n S g m d n S'/Descent: S' n d m g m g S

Raag Bhimpalasi Ascent: 'n S g m P n S'/Descent: S' n D P m g R S

Andolan (swing)
An andolan is a slow swing applied to a note. It is a very special feature of certain ragas and is only applied to specific notes in those ragas. In other words, you may not indiscriminately swing any note you please. So, in an andolan, this slow gentle oscillation from the note in question touches microtones on one or both sides of that note, never quite reaching the adjacent note(s). For instance, the andolan on d in Raag Darbari sways gently downward from d, but never quite reaches P (the note below it), while the andolan on g in the same raga sways gently downward from g but never quite reaches R.

Raag Darbari Ascent: S R g~ m P d~ n S'/Descent: S' d~ n P, m P g~ m R S

Another example of andolan is the g in Raag Jog on the way down, which is quite distinct from the Raag Darbari andolan on the same note.

Raag Jog Ascent: 'n S G m P n S'/Descent: S' n P m G m, S g~ S

Gamak (a very powerful oscillation)
An andolan (swing) is tentative. It wanders the periphery of a note, as though unable to make up its mind where to settle. A gamak is just the opposite. It is quite sure of itself. It has declared possession of two or three notes and vigorously shuttles back and forth between them. Gamaks are a somewhat masculine embellishment technique and suit some ragas better than others. Like andolans, gamaks are also applied selectively.

Gamak, Raag Hamsadhwani
laage lagana sakhi pati sana

Gamak, Raag Hamsadhwani
parama sukha ati anandana

Khatka/Geetkari
A khatka (also called geetkari) is a small cluster of notes sung rapidly but with enough gusto that each note is clearly audible. Here are two examples from Raag Yaman, which often features khatkas on the notes S and P. In the first example, S' is actually a rapid combination of the notes (S' R' S' S' N). And below that, the P is a combination of the notes (P D P P M).

Khatka, Raag Yaman - 'N R G M D N S'(=S'R'S'S'N)

Khatka, Raag Yaman - M D N, N D P(=PDPPM)

Murki (a subtle khatka)
A murki is a very subtle khatka. This extremely pretty embellishment technique involves singing a cluster of notes so quickly and lightly that it sounds like a little flutter in the throat. My personal view is that the best murkis happen of their own accord. You have to lead up to a murki very deliberately, and your vocal cords must be flexible and agile enough to enable them to happen, but after that, you just have to let go and allow your vocal cords to take command. Different singers produce murkis differently, so they are like a singer's personal signature.

Murki, Anuradha Jayaraman

Zamzama (notes sung nimbly in quick succession)
A zamzama is like a khatka except that the notes used in a zamzama are usually in orderly sequences. Zamzamas are not found in serious classical music because of their extremely folksy flavor. They are very characteristic of a style of semi-classical singing called tappa, which derives from folk songs sung by camel riders in Punjab.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby OM GUY » Sat Mar 17, 2012 4:34 am

Kirya~

Why not just write a book so that we can store it on our shelves and you could get rich? :lol:

What a wealth of imformation! Thanks for your efforts!!
Let's hope 2016 is less violent and that people discover the soothing influence of ICM. Hari OM!

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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Mon Mar 19, 2012 5:32 pm

Khatka/Gitkari http://www.itcsra.org/alankar/gitkari/k ... index.html to listen to samples

When a knot or cluster of notes is sung or played very fast and with gusto to decorate or embellish another note, it is called a khatka or gitkari. Say for example, R S S….R where the cluster, R S S embellishes R and is applied very swiftly. In instruments, khatkas are played not only in fast meends but also with the help of a combination of krintans and sparshs. R S in krintan and S in sparsh when played on a single stroke of the right hand can be termed as a khatka for its musical effect.

Ajoy Chakrabarty sings khatkas both in sargams and in aakars.


Ajoy Chakrabarty now sings khatkas in raga Puriya, following it with an abundance of khatkas around pancham in Yaman. It needs to be mentioned that for certain alankars like the khatka, varjit swars are sometimes used but with great caution and skill. Listen carefully to the hidden pancham in the khatka in Puriya.

Khatkas on the sitar.
Khatkas on the sarode.
Manilal Nag plays a few khatkas in raga Puriya Dhanashree.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Mon Mar 19, 2012 5:34 pm

Kan http://www.itcsra.org/alankar/kan/kan_index.html


Kan - swars


In order to expound the shrutis in Indian music, the swars applied in raga sangeet are never static and rarely in staccato form except in the case of some instruments. Each note has some link with its preceding and succeeding note. These linking notes are called grace notes or Kan-swars. The Kan-swar is never fully pronounced and is sung or played in a very subtle manner. Kan-swars are very important for the proper rendition of a raga. In fact, two or more ragas sharing a common note or phrase differ vastly from each other primarily due to the application of their Kan-swars. Also, a Kan-swar is very often the starting point of a meend.

Ajoy Chakrabarty sings kan-swars woven around the common note pancham in 7 different ragas:

He begins with raga Shree, where the pancham is r P or r P m P.

In Gauri the same pancham is S P and P d N P. In Deshkar it is D G P, P G P, P D D P etc., while in Kedar it is P m P, or M G P m P and so on.

The unique Kanhada ang pancham is n n P M P or n P M P.

Multani that follows has an entirely different colour altogether in P d P m P and g m P d P m P.

He concludes with pancham in mandra saptak in Megh: , R , R and S .




Meend with Kan-Swars


In the meends illustrated so far (see Types of Meend), the starting point has always been a full note. But in practice, a meend usually originates from a note that is only fleetingly touched. This is the grace note or Kan-swar that enhances the beauty of the succeeding notes (of the meend). Kan-swars are very important for the proper rendition of a raga and are inexorably linked with the Meend family. An incorrect Kan-swar (within a meend) would bring in shades of some other related raga into the performance. Kan-swars are used for both vocal and instrumental renditions.
Vocal

The scholars sing meends in Kanhada-ang (P g m), where P is the kan to the meend g m, followed by M R P in Malhar-ang, where M is the kan to the meend, R P


The Kan-swar meend is further illustrated by Shruti Sadolikar in m P, m P R and R G M G M P m P R in Nat-ang.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Mon Mar 19, 2012 5:40 pm

Sparsh http://www.itcsra.org/alankar/sparsh/sparsh_index.html


Kan-swars deal with grace notes or touch notes. Since “touch” means Sparsh in Hindi, these grace notes are often referred to as sparsh-swars as well. Other than being executed vocally, kan-swars (or sparsh-swars) can also be executed on instruments. There are three ways of doing this: using a swift short glide (meend or a ghaseet), a Sparsh (not to be confused with the sparsh-swar) and a Krintan.

Sparsh (the technique) is a special way of playing a note on plucked stringed instruments. The direction of note is ascending. For playing R G, the forefinger of the left-hand is placed on R and plucked and before the sound dies out, the middle or ring finger is placed with force on G so that G is clearly audible without right-hand plucking. Here the main note is G while R is the sparsh-swar.

This is a two-note sparsh followed by 3-note sparsh on the sitar. Please note that phrases like , are sparsh played from the open first string of the sitar.


On the sarode, we hear a series of 2-note sparsh beginning on the three open strings, S M followed by a series of regular 2-note sparsh in different octaves. Next, is a series of 3-note sparsh. Finally there are phrases like R P -M, P -n and D R - . In all three cases, the sparsh-swar is four notes away from the main swar.


Buddhadev Das Gupta plays a variety of sparsh in a short jod section in raga Kafi Kanhada.
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Re: Basic ICM Concepts

Postby Kirya » Mon Mar 19, 2012 6:11 pm

Krintan http://www.itcsra.org/alankar/krintan/k ... index.html

Krintan is the opposite of Sparsh. The movement of notes in the Krintan is descending. For example in G R, the forefinger is placed on R and the middle or ring finger is placed on G and immediately after plucking G, the finger on it is moved transversely across the string to produce a secondary plucking (without the help of the right hand) so that R is sounded. Here, R is the main note and G is the sparsh-swar.

Though the musical idea behind both Sparsh and Krintan is the kan-swar, they produce rather different effects (other than the expected difference between voice and instrument) from the kan-swar produced vocally. This is mainly because the chief action in playing a Sparsh or Krintan involves complex plucking on a metal string with both hands. The ensuing sound has a slightly metallic timbre and can never be reproduced by the human voice. However, if a kan-swar is played on an instrument using a swift meend, the effect is not so different from its vocal counterpart.

2-note and 3-note krintans on the sitar.


2-note followed by double krintans like n n, D P D P on the sarode.


Buddhadev Das Gupta plays 2-note and 3-note krintans in a short jod in raga Kafi Kanhada. This is followed by a special bandish of his gharana entirely based on krintans. This composition is in raga Kafi and set to drut teentala.


Manilal Nag plays krintan and sparsh alternately in raga Puriya Dhanashri.
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